Contrast Effect

A contrast effect is an improvement or decrease in relation to normal perception, cognition, or related characteristics after subsequent (immediately preceding) or simultaneous exposure to a stimulus of lesser or greater value of the same size. A contrast effect is an increase or decrease relative to normal perception, cognition and related actions as a result of an immediately preceding or simultaneous impact on a stimulus of lesser or greater value in the same dimension. Contrast effect is a cognitive bias that distorts our perception of something when we compare it to something else, increasing the differences between the two. This occurs when people feel better about their work in a given field, when they are surrounded by people who are relatively poorly performing in that field, compared to people who are relatively good in the same field. [Sources: 0, 1, 2]

The contrast effect is usually classified as one of two main types of contextual effects, which are cognitive biases that occur when comparison with background information affects our assessment of certain stimuli. Contrast effects are ubiquitous in the perception, cognition and performance of humans and animals. This concept differs from contrast, which itself refers to the difference in color and brightness of an object from its environment or background. Explaining to yourself why the comparison presented to you is inappropriate, such as focusing on the absolute price of a product rather than its relative price, can help reduce the likelihood that you will experience a contrast effect. [Sources: 1, 2, 6]

Thus, the effect of assimilation is similar to the effect of contrast, the difference between them is that the effect of assimilation decreases the perceived difference between the compared objects, and the effect of contrast increases this difference. Contrast effects can shape not only visual qualities such as color and brightness, but other types of perception, including the perception of weight. When the available information is used to construct a target view, the effect of assimilation is achieved, while the available information that is created in the mental view of the reference standard leads to contrast effects. Simultaneous contrast effect is the term used when stimuli are presented simultaneously, whereas subsequent contrast is used when stimuli are presented one after the other. [Sources: 1, 4, 8]

When the perception of the currently displayed stimulus is modulated by the previously displayed stimulus, subsequent contrast occurs. The 17th century philosopher John Locke noticed the contrast effect. He observed that cold water can appear hot or cold, depending on whether the hand that touched it was in hot or cold water. As a complement to the above definition, this term describes the influence of sincere psychological closeness in the social environment, which affects current self-expression and self-awareness (psychology)|self-knowledge. [Sources: 2, 4, 8]

On the contrary, it is widely known that, in addition to edge contrast, other factors associated with more complex and high-level image analysis, which cannot be explained by simple local interactions, can affect the perception of brightness / color in a global context. [Sources: 5]

In the early 20th century, Wilhelm Wundt identified contrast as a fundamental principle of perception, and this effect has since been validated in many different fields. Comparison of different colors and shades can cause a misperception of contrast. While these are very different visual impairments, they both affect the automaticity of walking and indicate that designers must consider the associated cognitive factors that accompany complex interactions of visual parameters. Types Simultaneous contrast, identified by Michel Eugene Chevreul, refers to how the colors of two different objects affect each other. [Sources: 3, 4, 6, 8]

Whenever researchers conduct attitude polls and questionnaires | questionnaires, they must take into account the processes of judgment and the subsequent effects of assimilation. Those with simulated or real-life low vision demonstrate a relatively intact ability to assess room size and renew self-esteem after walking simple paths within visual space, if only under conditions of extreme visual acuity / contrast sensitivity degradation. Ramps and Steps determined that enhancing the contrast of stepped transitions with directional illumination aids detection, but that providing high-contrast texture on these surfaces degrades detection. [Sources: 3, 8]

Some of the NIBS guidelines relate to the ideas of visual accessibility and perception of local and global characteristics of spatial behavior and can be based on basic scientific approaches such as the methods described above. In general for object detection, contrast is important for blurry vision, but more subtly, the contrast between object and background depends on the location of the lighting. Cognitive bias, in which people respond differently to a particular choice depending on how it is presented; For example. As other signals become more available with increasing duration, the perception of brightness / color changes to become more compatible with these other signals. [Sources: 3, 5, 7]

Cognitive bias that occurs when people place too much emphasis on just one aspect of an assessment, resulting in an error in accurately predicting the usefulness of a future outcome. Whether a piece of music is perceived as good or bad may have something to do with whether the music previously listened to was unpleasant or pleasant. Bias in the processing of information by a person, which refers to the tendency to insufficiently reconsider one’s beliefs when new evidence is presented. [Sources: 4, 7]

— Slimane Zouggari


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