Dreyfus Model

The acquisition of skills is an essential ingredient in attaining success. In connection to this, with the continuous innovation of technology, models of skills acquisition were developed. One of these was the Dreyfus model of skills acquisition.

Short History

The Dreyfus Model was developed by brothers Hubert and Stuart Dreyfus way back in 1980. It was applied on an 18 pages report on their research at the University of California in Berkeley, Operations Research Center for the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

Moreover, the original Dreyfus model suggests that a student passes through five distinct stages including novice, competence, proficiency, expertise, as well as mastery. The latter model is an efficient tool when it comes to agile adoption.

The Importance of Dreyfus Model

In an organization, to be able to have a united team, Dreyfus model can help to achieve success both in life as well as in the software industry. To mention a few, the following stages are the important things that you must consider in order to make the most out of your project.

The Novice

This is the first stage in the Dreyfus model. It is also called as the beginner, wherein an individual is just starting to learn and acquire new skill.


It was also considered as the recipe stage. Competent people refer to rules and utilize analytical procedures. However, since the problems that you may encounter are more complex, then you can rely on your past experiences to make a wise decision.


In the Dreyfus model, the proficient team starts to formulate on their emotional experiences from their past success and failures in order to determine the elements of the situation that they are focusing on. In this stage, an individual may take higher risk and commitment to produce positive and rewarding outcome. With this, you may know the things that you must do to be a proficient team.


In this stage of Dreyfus model, the expert or the individual does not only see the things to be done, but also see the possible solutions even without having undergoing on an analytical process. In this level, the person has completely immersed in understanding the situation, formulating decisions on how to proceed, as well as the outcome of the situation. With this, the acquisition of the skills and knowledge will be easy and quick.


With the use of Dreyfus model, then the team can now go more on agile development. As a result, the flow on projects would be easy and can attain a higher level of success in a particular industry or niche.

The Dreyfus model can be used in different fields such as in medical education and a lot more. It can be the best tool for you to acquire the essential skills that you can use for your future success. This tool can help to increase the level of expertise to make the most out of a particular niche or even in life.

Criticism of Dreyfus Model  

The criticism of the Dreyfus model has been made by Chassy and Gobet. They are the one who developed an alternative theory of intuition. For them, there is no such empirical evidence for the presence of stages when it comes to the development of expertise.

— Slimane Zouggari