Apophenia

Apophenia Is The Tendency To Perceive Meaningful Connections Between Unrelated Things.

Now, when it comes to events in our life that can be randomly distributed over time, from the point of view of our mind, looking for patterns, it seems that they happen in groups, and therefore we can believe that bad things happen to three, that God is testing our faith that we were born under a bad sign. We can imagine that conspiracies arise from the fact that several bad things happen in a row. [Sources: 9]

And it can motivate us to make sense of completely unrelated life events. This means that we often see patterns in random information, and this can be a serious problem. But this means that we can overcome and interpret what is not really there. [Sources: 9]

This is a useful thing in the natural environment, because we do not have a straight line from our brain to reality, we always interpret models. Surprisingly, our brains are very good at picking up these hidden patterns and messages. [Sources: 5, 9]

Thus, apophenia has both sides: it is a deeply human mental habit that can underlie adaptive behavior and reward flights of fantasy or cause all kinds of paranoia and stupidity. There is a strange connection between apophenia, “a potentially pathological tendency to perceive meaningful connections between apparently unrelated things,” and the artist’s receptive mood when creating art. This may be the difference between psychotic and creative use of patterns and connections. [Sources: 0, 6, 8]

However, in extreme cases it can be a symptom of mental dysfunction, for example, as a symptom of paranoid schizophrenia [6], in which the patient sees hostile patterns (eg, a conspiracy to persecute him) in ordinary actions. Apophenia also began to describe the human tendency to unreasonably look for patterns in random information, for example, during gambling. Ultimately, apophenia is associated with a person’s tendency to look for patterns in random information, for example, when gambling. [Sources: 7, 12]

The experience of observing patterns or relationships in random or meaningless data was invented by apophenia by the German neurologist Klaus Conrad. He initially described this phenomenon as a mentally ill thought process, although it is now seen as a ubiquitous feature in human nature. [Sources: 2]

He defined this as “an unmotivated consideration of connections [accompanied by] a particular sense of abnormal meaning.” He defined this as “an unmotivated consideration of connections [accompanied by] a particular sense of abnormal meaning.” [Sources: 12]

He described the early stages of delusional thinking as referential overinterpretations of real sensory perceptions, as opposed to hallucinations. He described the early stages of delusional thinking as referential overinterpretations of real sensory perceptions, as opposed to hallucinations. [Sources: 12]

So, according to the theory, the human brain has evolved into “belief machines” and “pattern recognition machines” that seek to organize messy sensory inputs into meaningful data. Our brains are pattern-discerning machines that connect dots, allowing us to discover meaningful relationships between the mass of sensory inputs we encounter. Rather than simply viewing apophenia as a kind of unfortunate side effect of our cognitive architecture, psychoanalysis encourages us to look at meaning where it seems less obvious. [Sources: 2, 8]

This type of pattern recognition can induce apophenia on the grounds that because the brain is not looking for exact matches, it can detect some characteristics of the match and assume that they are the same. The deletion, distortion, and generalization that occurs at the subconscious level of people make this flow of information manageable, but sometimes at the expense of inaccurate recognition patterns, and this is where the concept of apophenia comes into play. In statistics, apophenia is an example of a Type I error – misidentifying patterns in data. [Sources: 7, 11]

The problem of apophenia in finance has been covered in scientific articles. Personal descriptions of manic patients are almost obsessive, but research on the link between apophenia and bipolar disorder is scarce. For a person whose first understanding of something is usually visual, apophenia is an invaluable tool. Merriam-Webster defines it as the tendency to perceive a meaningful connection or pattern between unrelated or random things. [Sources: 5, 6, 7, 8]

There is another form of apophenia, called pareidolia, which fills the gap in our vision. A common phenomenon caused by hallucinations is seeing a face on a random part of the wall. Many people perceive faces in seemingly random places, such as dirt patterns left in clouds, cars, or on the moon. [Sources: 2, 5]

Motivation is usually used in visual arts, but you use it in your own way, finding patterns between everyday objects and obviously unmodeled places. In 2008, Michael Shermer coined the term “pattern” and defined it as “the tendency to find meaningful patterns in meaningless noise.” In Believing Brain (2011), Shemer writes that people “tend to instill meaning, intention, and freedom of action into models,” which he calls “motivation”. Good novelists certainly understand this and rely on the expectations and expectations that seemingly unrelated associations evoke in their readers. [Sources: 0, 2, 7]

In fact, all conspiracy theory and other erroneous conclusions, such as player error, are based on a usually useful tendency to piece things together. This is not an exploratory use of joins, where many disparate inputs can be used. However, this is perhaps the most reliable method of preventing distorted thinking and misconnecting unrelated events. [Sources: 5, 6]

Your perception seems important, but it exists in your fantasy. Defending it can lead to harmlessness, which is harmful and harmless depending on the context. In fact, we have never seen other people; on the contrary, we only see those aspects of ourselves fall on them. Today, too many people in our human family insist on seeing connections and meanings in things and events that do not actually exist, leading to delusions and crazy and dangerous conspiracy theories. However, today’s atheism finally forces our society to link unrelated things together and formulate conspiracy theories on this basis. [Sources: 1, 3, 5]

Apophenia is also manifested in the most complex pattern in our human relationship world. Apophenia () is a tendency to perceive meaningful connections between unrelated things. Confidence in QAnon depends on trying to establish connections where there is no connection. Brugger explained that when a concept is ignited in the right hemisphere, a distantly related concept will also come to mind, creating a meaningful sense of connection. [Sources: 2, 6, 7, 8]

He described the acute phase of schizophrenia, during which irrelevant details seemed to be full of connections and meaning. The term (German: Apophanie) was coined by the psychiatrist Klaus Konrad in a 1958 publication on the early stages of schizophrenia. [Sources: 8, 12]

In statistics, a problem similar to apophenia is a Type I error or false positive. We are deceived by optical illusions – apophenia of the visual cortex – but we don’t take these cognitive errors personally. [Sources: 2, 8]

You, I, and even the most logical person in the world are subject to confirmation bias; this is how our brain works. Unfortunately, confirmatory bias is just one of the cognitive biases that are hardcoded in our brains; this is what strikes us the most when it comes to conspiracy theories. When combined with our penchant for confirmation bias, conspiracy theories essentially become a powerful predator that preys on people who want to feel like geniuses. Therefore, when you express hatred or lack of empathy towards others, you are not only a reaction, but also a stimulus. [Sources: 1, 5]

— Slimane Zouggari

 

 

##### Sources #####

[0]: https://www.romanovgrave.com/one-question-one-answer/greg-drasler

[1]: https://medium.com/@ankitkoul26/life-without-apophenia-481606fa9fb0

[2]: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/reality-play/201207/being-amused-apophenia

[3]: https://ohart.agency/collect/efg-apophenia

[4]: https://soundcloud.com/adamdunetz/sets/apophenia

[5]: https://zilbest.com/psychology/why-we-love-conspiracy-theories/

[6]: https://uxdesign.cc/apophenia-a-patterned-life-45e50bdd5b5f

[7]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apophenia

[8]: https://slate.com/technology/2014/09/apophenia-makes-unrelated-things-seem-connected-metaphors-paranormal-beliefs-conspiracies-delusions.html

[9]: https://www.bbc.co.uk/ideas/videos/why-we-are-so-prone-to-seeing-patterns-in-randomne/p0bb6sj8

[10]: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/apophenia

[11]: http://forum.worldoftanks.com/index.php?/topic/651026-apophenia-aka-its-rigged/

[12]: https://dbpedia.org/page/Apophenia

The Anchoring Bias

We can attach ourselves to all kinds of values ​​or information, whether we invented them ourselves or gave us 4, but obviously for different reasons. We tend to use anchors or landmarks for decisions and assessments, and sometimes they lead us astray. While we may have a sufficient level of detail to make an informed decision, the anchor can have a huge impact on our decision. This is especially true when deciding what to pay for things, as we are overly influenced by the set price. [Sources: 4, 6, 12]

One way to avoid attachment bias, whether emotional or when making a decision, is to try to start with the attachment state. Once the anchor is established, other judgments are made by moving away from that anchor, and bias arises in interpreting other information around the anchor. As a result, immediate purchasing decisions and many other subsequent decisions are influenced by the original anchor5. Retailers set prices knowing what consumers think about prices in relation to (box: Are arbitrary numbers strong anchors?). [Sources: 1, 5, 12]

For example, a used car dealer might show you the most expensive model before setting a high base for the corresponding used car price. Displaying an original price with a discounted price means that the original price can anchor users’ perception of that value for the items. Here’s an example from the Columbia website where the original price has been canceled, which leads users to view the discount as a bargain. [Sources: 0, 3, 10]

A proposition becomes more compelling if social proof is used as a secondary anchor. With a high link price, discounts seem to be beneficial. A starting price of $ 20,000 for an anchor will reduce the willingness to pay. Knowing this, the seller may deliberately set the peg too high (for example, in the price of the car) so that any future price reduction looks like a discount. [Sources: 3, 4, 11]

In addition to the original research by Tversky and Kahneman, many other studies have shown that pegging can have a significant impact on the appraised value of a property. According to this theory, when we are first presented with binding information, the first thing we do is mentally check to see if it is a plausible value for whatever target or situation we are considering. However, since the activated information lives in our mental model for a specific concept, the anchor bias should be stronger when the triggered information is applicable to the task at hand. Anchor bias means people rely too heavily on this early information, even if they learn more about it later. [Sources: 6, 12, 13]

The problem is that this explanation is less satisfying when the anchor is so obviously useless, as when you tell people that Gandhi was over nine years old when he died. [Sources: 12]

A peg shift can cause a financial market participant, such as a financial analyst or investor, to make the wrong financial decision, such as buying an undervalued investment or selling an overvalued investment. While peg bias is certainly annoying when you’re trying to guess, it can have even more serious implications for your financial decisions. So the next time you try to make an important decision, think a little about the possible impact of anchor bias on your choice. Once you realize how powerful strategic anchors can have in our judgment, you can use that knowledge to your advantage. [Sources: 2, 9, 10]

For example, it can be helpful to study the average sales price for a used car model you are interested in and use that as an anchor to determine whether or not to close the deal. For example, when negotiating a car, the buyer can drop the anchor by bidding first. So instead of bargaining and letting the other party drop the anchor and make the first offer, you too can beat them. By taking your time with the decision-making process, you can gather more information and weaken the anchoring effect. [Sources: 1, 4, 10]

But first, you need to create anchors that will resonate positively with your customers. No one likes to make difficult choices or constantly challenge themselves, so the simplicity and familiarity of anchoring makes this process more engaging and influential than people might think. Good anchors help users form their expectations of what is normal or exceptional, lower the cognitive cost of making decisions, and can even increase the perceived value of a product. The weakness of this bias lies in imprecise anchors that are deliberately used by others to shape public opinion, influence product decisions, and manage behavior. [Sources: 0, 1, 3, 11]

Anchoring effect is a type of cognitive bias because people tend to rely on their first information and may decide too quickly and not shop at better prices or overlook other information, such as product quality. Anchoring effect is a cognitive bias that describes a common human tendency to rely too much on the first piece of information (“anchoring”) when making decisions. [Sources: 1, 5]

In the decision-making process, anchoring occurs when people use initial information to make subsequent judgments. In the decision-making process, anchoring occurs when people use initial information to make subsequent judgments. The anchoring effect is a cognitive bias in which a specific reference point or anchor point affects a person’s decision. Anchoring is a heuristic found in behavioral finance. It describes the subconscious use of irrelevant information, such as the purchase price of a stock, as a fixed reference point (or again) to make subsequent decisions on the stock. [Sources: 5, 7, 9, 13]

Anchoring is a cognitive bias in which the use of arbitrary criteria, such as purchase price or price, is disproportionately weighted in the decision-making process. Anchor offset is an important concept in behavioral finance. Behavioral finance. Behavioral finance is the study of the influence of psychology on the behavior of investors or financial professionals. Careful research and evaluation of the factors influencing the markets or the price of securities is necessary to eliminate bias in decision-making in the investment process. [Sources: 9, 14]

Anchor bias occurs when people rely too much on information that already exists or the first information they find when making decisions. Anchoring most often occurs when consumers lack strong evidence or knowledge. Anchoring is especially popular when people are dealing with new concepts. Anchoring is the fact that people tend to hold on to the first (or else) information they come across and allow their subsequent actions, such as evaluations, arguments, and conclusions, to be made about it. [Sources: 3, 8, 14]

A person’s tendency to rely heavily on the first information they receive when making decisions is called the anchoring effect. 2 Anchoring effect is a cognitive bias: a systematic thinking error that affects people’s judgment and decision-making. Anchoring bias, anchoring effect, or anchoring heuristic is a cognitive psychology finding that people overestimate the first information they receive. [Sources: 1, 12]

#### Sources #####

[0]: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/anchoring-principle/

[1]: https://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/page1-econ/2021/04/01/the-anchoring-effect

[2]: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-anchoring-bias-2795029

[3]: https://www.abtasty.com/blog/anchoring-bias-decision-making/

[4]: https://boycewire.com/anchoring-bias-definition-and-examples/

[5]: https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/negotiation-skills-daily/the-drawbacks-of-goals/

[6]: https://thedecisionlab.com/biases/anchoring-bias/

[7]: https://coglode.com/research/anchoring-bias

[8]: https://www.sagu.edu/thoughthub/the-affects-of-anchoring-bias-on-human-behavior

[9]: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/anchoring.asp

[10]: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/stretching-theory/201902/outsmart-the-anchoring-bias-in-three-simple-steps

[11]: https://percipiocompany.com/anchoring-bias/

[12]: https://www.spring.org.uk/2021/07/anchoring-bias.php

[13]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anchoring_(cognitive_bias)

[14]: https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/trading-investing/anchoring-bias/

Cognitive bias

According to wikipedia, “a cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment”. This bias tends to be more pervasive here than elsewhere and tends to be more extreme than the norm. In most cases where this problem arises it is not due to random variation in the mental state of one or more people. Instead the bias may be a subtle but widespread problem. For example:

1. People become less inclined to engage to the right than others (e.g., those with low self-control or the opposite attitude). It can be especially prevalent in those with certain social conditions, including low self-esteem, under stress, and in people who are depressed.

2. People are less likely to accept or approve of a positive or negative mental state (e.g., people who are not aware of problems and therefore cannot engage to the right should be referred to social services).

What factors are most related to this problem? It is worth noting that the most likely cause for this tendency is:

A significant bias is associated with many psychiatric conditions that can cause social disaffection. A significant bias is also associated with other major factors. This bias may be more common in people with chronic depression who are not aware of the illness or are depressed in particular as compared to people with normal psychological well character.

If we looked at the frequency of these major factors, we would expect to see something like the following pattern, which would predict how many people would experience this.

— Slimane Zouggari

Agile testing

Agile testing is a type of testing that adheres to agile software development’s rules and concepts. Unlike the Waterfall technique, Agile Testing may begin right at the start of a project, with development and testing working in tandem. Agile testing is a continuous process rather than a sequential one.

Before you proceed with agile testing, you should have a well-defined test plan. The test data requirements, infrastructure, test environments, and test results are all included in the agile test strategy for that iteration. Unlike the waterfall paradigm, an agile model involves writing and updating a test strategy for each release. During agile testing, you will focus on numerous testing methods, including user acceptance testing, collaborative testing, pair testing, exploratory testing, and usability testing.

As you do agile testing, you will also need to be aware about the risks associated with it. For example, the automated user interface will provide confidence that you need to proceed with testing. However, it would be slow during execution. On the other hand, it would cost a lot to build and be quite fragile for maintenance as well. Automation would not improve the overall productivity of testing significantly. The tester has to play a major role in here. In other words, the tester should be aware of how to test in the right way.

In software testing, the agile methodology emphasizes testing as early as feasible in the software development lifecycle. It necessitates a high level of client participation and the testing of code as soon as it is made public. The code should be reliable enough to be tested in a production environment. To ensure that the issues are addressed and tested, extensive regression testing may be performed. The effectiveness of agile model testing is primarily down to team communication.

— Slimane Zouggari

Test Automation

Automation Testing, often known as Test Automation, is a software testing approach that involves the execution of a test case suite using particular automated testing software tools. Manual testing, on the other hand, is carried out by a person sitting in front of a computer, meticulously carrying out the test procedures.

In addition to entering test data into the System Under Test, the automated testing software may compare predicted and actual outcomes and create thorough test reports. Software Test Automation necessitates significant financial and human resources.

Repeated execution of the same test suite will be required in subsequent development cycles. This test suite may be recorded and replayed as needed using a test automation tool. There is no need for human involvement after the test suite has been automated. Test Automation’s return on investment has improved as a result of this. The aim of automation is to minimize the number of test cases that must be performed manually, not to completely remove manual testing.

If you are looking for a way to enhance test coverage, test effectiveness, and execution speed in agile testing, you may think about going ahead with test automation.

There are five main steps to follow as you do test automation. The very first step is to select the best test tools that you will be using for automation. Then you should define the overall scope of automation. The third step would be to plan, design, and develop the test automation scripts. After that, you can proceed with test execution. The final step of test automation would be maintenance.

Before you proceed with test automation, it is important to determine the scope of the project. On top of that, you should also determine the right tools to ensure success at the end of the day.

— Slimane Zouggari

ISTQB certification

The International Software Testing Qualifications Board (ISTQB) Certification is an internationally recognized software testing certification that is administered online by its Member Boards via a testing Exam Provider. A Member Board(s) licenses an Exam Provider to offer exams locally and globally, including online testing certification. The ISTQB Certified Tester certificate is awarded to candidates who pass the test. This website contains all of the necessary QA Training materials for passing the ISTQB Foundation level test.

Certification from the International Software Testing Qualifications Board (ISTQB) is accessible in 70 countries where ISTQB has a Member Board. The names of the member boards vary per nation. For example, in the United States, the member board is known as the American Software Testing Qualifications Board (ASTQB), whereas in India, it is known as the Indian Testing Board (ITB). However, the test’s curriculum, questions, exam format, and all other elements remain the same. The International Society for Testing and Quality Assurance (ISTQB) is a non-profit organization managed by volunteers and industry specialists.

There are numerous reasons available to call ISTQB certification as the best certification available for testers. This is an online testing certification that anyone in the IT or non-IT industry can pursue. The certification is divided into three levels, with the Foundation Level requiring no prior job experience. This software testing certification is the world’s most well-known and fastest-growing software testing certification.

ISTQB certification allows you to work as a tester anywhere in the globe, unlike other qualifications that are only accepted in certain countries. Unlike the CSTP certification, which is only valid for three years and requires testers to requalify to retain their certification, the ISTQB certification will not expire. If you are a software tester in an agile team, this is a certification that you must think about getting.

— Slimane Zouggari

How to write test cases?

In an agile software development sprint, the software testers will need to write test cases before executing. However, it is important to have a clear understanding on what these test cases are. Test cases take the tester through a series of actions to determine whether a software program is bug-free and performing as the end user expects. Basic writing abilities, attention to detail, and a thorough grasp of the program under test are all required to learn how to construct test cases.

A test suite is a collection of test cases for a certain module or component of an application. A test session will almost always comprise several test cases because there will be more than one unique situation to be tested.

When developing test cases, it’s critical to put yourself in the shoes of the user and provide all relevant information. Spending the extra time and effort up front to develop effective test cases can save you time and work afterwards. The difference between a well-tested application and a badly tested application may be determined by well-written test cases.

The very first step of writing test cases for testing is to use a strong title. Then you should write a strong description for the test case. You will need to include both preconditions and assumptions for the testcase as well. It is important to keep the test steps concise and clear at all times. Then you should also include the expected results in the test case. It is better if you can make the test cases reusable as much as possible. Then you will be able to minimize the time that you spend on writing test cases in the future. Read the test case samples that you can find on the internet and start writing test cases.

— Slimane Zouggari

GUI Testing

GUI refers to Graphical User Interface. In other words, it is the interface that a user of your application can see. GUI Testing is a form of software testing that examines the product’s graphical user interface. The goal of Graphical User Interface (GUI) Testing is to guarantee that a software application’s features operate as expected by inspecting displays and controls such as menus, buttons, and icons.

The user interface is what the user sees. If you go to guru99.com, the first thing you’ll notice is the homepage, which is the site’s GUI. The source code is hidden from the user. The user may see the user interface. The attention is mostly on the design structure and whether or not the pictures are functioning properly.

For example, let’s assume that you develop a login page. If the login button is not visible on a web browser due to a resolution issue, it will not be usable for the users. You should detect such problems and overcome them during GUI testing.

Multiple approaches are there to do GUI testing. The most common approach out of them is manual based testing. This is where the tester will test graphical screens manually to ensure that they match with desired functionality. You can also do record and play in agile testing. There are automation tools, which can be helpful to get the job done. Another approach that you can follow is model based testing. This is where you develop a model to mimic system behavior, determine inputs and outputs, and run the test. Then you can compare the expected outcome with actual output.

— Slimane Zouggari

Unit Testing

During agile software development, you make simultaneous changes to different components or units of software. You should test these units before implementation. That’s where unit testing would come into play. Unit testing is a form of software testing that examines individual software units or components. The goal is to ensure that each unit of software code works as intended. Unit testing is carried out by developers throughout the development phase of an application. Unit tests are used to isolate a portion of code and ensure that it is accurate.

When it comes to unit testing, a unit can be an object, module, procedure, method, or function. Because software developers often want to save time by conducting little unit testing, this is a fallacy because insufficient unit testing leads to significant costs in defect repair during System Testing, Integration Testing, and even Beta Testing after the program has been developed. It saves time and money in the long run if thorough unit testing is done early in the development process. No matter what software you develop, you should do unit testing.

Multiple techniques are available for you to do unit testing. They include testing branch coverage, decision coverage, statement coverage, finite state machine coverage, and condition coverage.

You can do unit testing under manual method or automated method. When it comes to automated unit testing, a developer creates a portion of code in the program just for the purpose of testing the function. When the program is deployed, they will comment out and eventually remove the test code.

A developer might potentially isolate the function in order to thoroughly test it. This is a more extensive unit testing method that entails copying and pasting code into its own testing environment rather than the natural one. Isolating the code aids in the discovery of unneeded dependencies between the code under test and other units or data spaces in the product. These dependencies can then be removed.

— Slimane Zouggari

Spike testing

Spike testing is a form of software testing in which a software program is put through its paces with significant traffic load increases and decreases. Spike testing is used to assess how a software program responds to a rapid increase or decrease in user load, as well as to identify how long it takes to recover following a spike in user demand.

Spike testing is a technique for determining the flaws in software programs in agile software development. Spike testing is used to assess how the system reacts to sudden increases and decreases in user load. Spike testing is used in software engineering to assess whether a system’s performance will degrade when it is suddenly subjected to a high load.

Another objective of spike testing is to figure out how long it takes to recover. The system requires some time to settle between two consecutive surges in user traffic. The time it takes to recuperate should be as short as feasible. If you are developing an ecommerce store, and plans to launch special deals on Black Friday, you should subject the system to spike testing. Then you can ensure that the system will not crash because of the high volume of traffic that it receives.

There is a standardized approach to follow as you do spike testing in an agile environment. Before you do the spike test, you should determine load capacity. Then you need to prepare the test environment. After that, you can define the expected load. You can continue to increase the load along with time as you do the test. Then you can set back the load to normal and finish your testing. Once you are done with spike testing, you can analyze the results.

— Slimane Zouggari